The textbook gives a comprehensive summary of all railway trensport aspects, starting with definition of railway network, following with design of railway tracks, characterisation and classificcation of rolling stock, safety equipment, rail traffic organisation, signalling specifications, principles of rail traffic management, and finally, service regulations and tools. On base of this knowledge´s the focus on the operational aspects of railway transport is oriented. The timetabling and train formation are the main operational issues which are emphasised in the book. The textbook is meant primarily for students of bachelor or master degree studies in the field of Traffic for the purposes of training the Rail Trafic Operation. The publication can equally serve to others intending to study railway traffic and provide therm with a consistend view on traffic operation of railway.